What is Lyophilization?

Lyophilization appliances are used in the production of freeze-dried drugs and foods.

Lyophilization; It is a process that combines the benefits of freezing and drying to obtain a dry, active, long shelf life and easily soluble product. It is a stabilization process in which the substance is first frozen, then sublimation and then desorption, in which the amount of solvent is reduced to values ​​that do not support biological or chemical reactions.

Molecular and cell structure of the product is not damaged by lyophilization. It is dried and turned into medicine while preserving its nutritional values.

Lyophilization Technology was developed in the first quarter of the 1900s. The first lyophilizing device was derived from a chemical pump developed by Benedict & Manning in 1905. On the other hand, instant coffee, the first freeze-dried food sample, which has been renewed by lyophilization and pharmaceutical and bio-technology companies since the 1930s, was developed by Nestle for the first time in 1938, upon the request of Brazil to find solutions to excess coffee stocks.


1. Freezing,
2. Primary drying (sublimation),
3. Secondary drying (desorption)

The product is freezed. Depending on the product type, the freezing process may be longer or shorter. In the primary drying stage, a light vacuum is applied in the lyophilization cabinet where the product is in and as the temperature decreases, the molecules of high energy fly out by themselves. In the secondary drying phase, the vacuum is maximized and the last water molecules that crystallize and hold onto the substance are pulled out of the material.

The Importance and Benefits of Lyophilization

Lyophilization devices are mainly used in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Freeze drying method is preferred in order to extend the shelf life of vaccines and other injectable products. By removing the water from the material and sealing the material in a vial, the material can be easily stored, shipped and then returned to its original form for injection.

Maintaining the stability and efficacy of drugs
Convenient and easy storage
To prevent aggregation and particle formation
To prevent chemical changes (such as hydrolysis) thanks to low humidity
Preventing oxidation with air
Smooth caked surface
Sterile production possibility
Minimum product damage
Correct dosage
Easy to scale (scale-up)

Properties of High Quality Freeze-dried Materials

Minimal activity loss (for example: proteins / pharmaceuticals, microorganisms)
Safe storage for a long time (not in contact with air)
Quick reconstitution (when water is added)
Pharmaceutical smoothness

Advantages of Lyophilization


Pharmaceutical Sector

Blood Plasma
Vaccines and antibodies
Enzymes, hormones, and proteins
Erythocyte and serum
Viruses and bacteria
Other biological products
Some tissues are stored by lyophilization method for use in organ transplantation.

Research Laboratories

Active pharmaceutical ingredients
Pathological specimens and cultures
Vaccines, antibodies
Blood Plasma
Proteins, enzymes, and hormones
Viruses and bacteria

Nutrasotics (Food Extract)

Aloe Vera, echinacea
Mussel and shark cartilage, algae
Seeds, tea and wheatgrass

Initiating Cultures

For use in cheese, yoghurt, meat and probiotics.

Veterinary Medicine

Vaccines for pets
Bovine and poultry vaccines
Food produced for pets

Food industry

Meat, fish and seafood
Aromatic herbs
Fruit and juices
Breakfast cereals
Astronaut food supplies

Dairy Industry

Proteins, enzymes for probiotics
Baby food proteins
Freeze-dried foods
Cheese, milk, yogurt, cream, ice cream

Other Areas

Rescuing valuable manuscript books and documents damaged by flood and fire
Preservation (taxidermy) of animal specimens exhibited in museums
Drying of flowers (taxidermy)